Donatus, de schematibus, trans. J. Marchand

The Latin text is also available.

This is the translation of the De schematibus, sent out last night. Again, I apologize for the translation, especially of the examples, especially from Ennius. Like you and I/me, Donatus had to look for examples, and he may not have chosen too well in every case. I owe to Rick Wright the repetition of `watery' under hirmos. One really needs to write a commentary on the examples, e.g. under schesis onomaton we need to know who the Marsi, the Peligni and the Vesti were. On schesis onomaton, BTW, I encountered an interesting problem. It is a term I have used for years, but I suppose students just don't worry that much; no one ever challenged me. John did last night, and I said `You can find it in any dictionary'. It is not in any of them, nor is it in Lausberg. So, generations of students, mea culpa.

On Figures

There are schemata lexeos and schemata dianoeas, that is, figures of words and of senses, but the schemata dianoeas are for the orator, the schemata lexeos pertain to the grammarian. And though there are so many of them, there are of all of them only 17 you need, of which these are the names: 1. prolepsis, 2. zeugma, 3. hypozeuxis, 4. syllepsis, 5. anadiplosis, 6. anaphora, 7. epanalepsis, 8. epizeuxis, 9. paronomasia, 10. schesis onomaton, 11. parhomoeon, 12. homoeoptoton, 13. homoeoteleuton, 14. polyptoton, 15. hirmos, 16. polysyndeton, 17. dialyton.

1. Prolepsis is the foretelling (Vorwegnahme; presumption) of things which (do not) follow the regular order, such as: continuo reges ingenti mole Latinus (Aeneid 12.161) `Then the kings ride forth, Latinus in mighty pomp ...'

2. Zeugma is subsuming under one verb various phrases properly joined to it, as: Troiugena interpres divum, qui numina Phoebi, qui tripodas, Clari lauros, qui sidera sentis (Aeneid 3.359): `O son of Troy, interpreter of the gods, who knowest the will of Phoebus, the tripods, the laurel of the Clarian, the stars ...'

3. Hypozeuxis is a figure contrary to the above, where various verbs are joined to one clause, as: regem adit et regi memorat nomenque genusque (Aeneid 10.149) `He approached the king and announced to the king his name and his race.'

4. Syllepsis the bringing together of different clauses by one word, as _hic illius arma, Hic currus fuit_ (Aeneid 1.15 f.) `Here was her armour, here her chariot.' This scheme is so common that it occurs not only through parts of speech, but also by their accidents (characteristics). It is also syllepsis when singular words are joined by a plural verb, as: sunt nobis mitia poma, castaneae molles et pressi copia lactis. (Eclogues 1.80 f.) "We have ripe apples, soft chestnuts and a wealth of pressed cheese."

5. Anadiplosis is the repetition of words from the end of one verse at the beginning of the next, as: sequitur pulcherrimus Astur, Astur equo fidens. (Aeneid 10.180) `Then follows most beautiful Astur, Astur relying on his steed'.

6. Anaphora is the repetition of the same word at the beginning of several verses, as: nate, meae vires, mea magna potentia solus, nate patris summi, qui tela Typhoea temnis. (Aeneid 1.664) `Oh son, my strength, my mighty power alone, / Oh son, who scorn the Typhoean darts of the highest father'

7. Epanalepsis is the repetition of of a word placed at the beginning of a verse at its end, as: ante etiam sceptrum Dictaci regis et ante. (Georgics 2.536) `Before even the Cretan king held scepter and before' {sounds a little like Snagglepuss}

8. Epizeuxis is the repetition of the same word in one verse without any words between, as: me, me, adsum qui feci, in me convertite ferrum. (Aeneid 9.427) `On me, on me, I am here, who did it, on me turn your blade'

9. Paronomasia is kind of like punning, as: nam inceptio est amentium, haut amantium. (Terence, Andr. 1.3.13; Loeb 218) `This is a scheme more of madmen than of lovers' [a very common pun]

10. Schesis onomaton is a number of nouns joined together in a common way, as: Marsa manus, Peligna cohors, Vestina virum vis. (Ennius, 280) `Marsine hand, Pelignine cohort, Vestine machismo'

11. Parhomoeon happens when several words begin with the same letters, as: o Tite tute Tati tibi tanta tyranne tulisti. (Ennius 1.113; Loeb 109) `Yourself upon yourself, Oh Titus Tatius the Tyrant, you took these terrible troubles.' [very often cited]

12. Homoeoptoton occurs when various words end in the same case, as: merentes flentes lacrimantes commiserantes. (Ennius 1.107; Loeb ?): `sorrowing, weeping, shedding tears, commiserating'.

13. Homoeoteleuton is when several utterances end in a similar fashion, as: eos reduci quam relinqui, devehi quam deseri malui. (Ennius, Iphegenia, fragm. 9) `I did not wish to bring them back as much as to give them up, to lead them as much as to desert them'

14. Polyptoton is the use of many cases in various ways, as: litora litoribus contraria, fluctibus undas inprecor, arma armis, pugnent ipsique nepotesque. (Aeneid 4.628) `Shore against shore, water against wave, I pray, arms against arms, may they fight, they and their children.'

15. Hirmos is a series of utterances keeping their tenor right to the end {linking of associated qualities}, as: principio caelum ac terras camposque liquentes lucentemque globum lunae Titaniaque astra spiritus intus alit (Aeneid 6.724) `First, the watery heavens and the watery earth, and the watery plains, the shining orb of the moon and Titan's stars, a spirit within sustains'

16. Polysyndeton is a phrase joined by many conjunctions, as: Acamasque Thoasque Pelidesque Neoptolemusque (Aeneid 2.262) `Acamus and Thoas and Neoptolemus son of Peleus'

17. Dialyton or asyndeton is a figure contrary to the above, lacking in conjunctions, as: ite, ferte citi flammas, date tela, impellite remos. (Aeneid 4.593) `Go, bring flames quickly, give out spears, ply the oars'