| CCT 510
Introduction to Topics and Approaches for this Module
- Internationalism/Internationalization vs. Globalism/Globalization
- Earlier set of terms presuppose recognized, established group
of nations among which some entity or agent can be "inter."
- "Globalization" presupposes transnationalism: prevailing
metaphor is the centerless, nodal-concentrating network for relations
of power, assets, capital, cultures.
- Disciplines, methodologies for Approaching the Question of Globalization
and the Post-9/11 World
- Clash of methodologies: the world as socially, discursively, symbolically,
ideologically constructed vs. empirical and quantifiable knowledge
of the world outside social construction.
- Social constructivism vs. empiricism and quantifiable methodologies.
- Theory is like software: you get what you boot with.
- Combining methods for a complexity model.
- Deconstruct all binaries!
- Neither West or East is a unified totality capable of being
constructed as already-given opposites, or assumed as self-evident
or internally consistent wholes.
- Using West and East (and their variations) as binaries require
mutual entailment and definition by an opposite, by a predetermined
- Identity politics gets entangled in binaries and false projections
of a totalized, unified, or monolithic "other" or "enemy."
- Working with globalization paradigms, discourses, arguments, presuppositions.
- Theories of globalization from multiple disciplines, conflicting
- Often a proxy term for other agendas (like the earlier terms,
- The term "globalization" itself is contested and plural,
not singular (Michael Mann).
- Globalization, like societies and social power, is not a unified
or totalizing whole.
- Is it a descriptive or prescriptive term?
- "Clash of Civilizations" as a counter-force in globalization.
Huntington's well-known paradigm:
- "It is my hypothesis that the fundamental source of conflict
in this new world will not be primarily ideological or primarily
economic. The great divisions among humankind and the dominating
source of conflict will be cultural. Nation states will remain
the most powerful actors in world affairs, but the principal
conflicts of global politics will occur between nations and
groups of different civilizations. The clash of civilizations
will dominate global politics. The fault lines between civilizations
will be the battle lines of the future." (Huntington, 1993)
- A limited model. East and West and other civilizations are
complex societies, and there's no guarantee that nations will
rally around a core state as the bearer of a civilization (e.g.,
- The "Other" is always already inside: the West is
in the East, the East is in the West. No nation is a unified,
isolated, totality. In fact, globalization teaches us the opposite.
- What if we look at the world total as a network of interdependencies
with complex social structures, rather than as polarities and
illusory unities in opposition to each other?
- But nations and economic players must enact globalization from
within existing institutional structures: it is not an independent
or autonomous force.
- Beware the reification of abstract terms: "globalization"
is not a thing or power in itself, but is only seen through the
social and economic agents that agree to act in certain ways.
- Globalization Theories: Some Dominant Views and Issues
- Globalization as a model of the mobility of capital--finacial,
intellectual, human--in a globally networked, transnational world.
- Globalization as a description of international flows of capital,
information, technological infrastructure, concentrations of production,
infrastructure, and labor in "global information cities"
- Global cities and networks: globalization is a product of
networked cities, resulting in contrasts in wealth and resources
between states with and without global cities.
- Globalization as a theory of power distribution in political-economy
- Globalization as a redefinition of the old divisions of the world--developed
and developing countries, industrialized and industrializing nations,
and core and periphery.
- Divisions between northern and southern hemispheres becoming
more dominant and problematic than old divisions between developed
and developing nations or East and West.
- Some main agreed-upon indicators of globalization:
- the spread of manufacturing from the economically advanced countries
to the Third World, shifting markets but globalizing production
- movement of basic industry and manufacturing to developing world
and move to information economy in developed world.
- the development of world products and extension of transnational
- the diffusion of interconnected, international financial markets.
- large-scale transfers of populations to metropolitan regions.
- the emergence of a global preference for democracy and liberal
- the consumption of identical cultural goods around the world
(pop culture, entertainment).
- the movement toward worldwide access to communications
and information technology across territorial and national boundaries.
- globalization as materialized in the flow
of communications, finance, and data across national boundaries
among global networked cities as the nodes in a global network.
- international growth of telecom and the Internet with simultaneous
centralizing/concentrating and decentralizing/disaggregating forces.
- Contentious issues and debates:
- Globalization seen as the worldwide diffusion
of dominant cultures through the global marketplace (Western and
American cultures globalized through ownership of infrastructure
and production), reading "globalization" as another case of
hegemony, cultural imperialism, or Americanization.
- Globalization as the imposition of Western
and American transnational market economics, characterized as global
capitalism or empire, throughout the world.
- The general homogenization or "internationalization"
of culture, favoring Western developed nations and their languages
and values, accompanied by an awareness of a resulting dilution
or disappearance of local and minority cultures.
- The Clash in Identities: nationalisms, and imagined communities
- Nation-state identities and pan-national imagined communities
("Nation of Islam"), "American," "European."
"imagined community" theory: power in imagined identities
and communities. Today, trans-national identities seem to exert
the most power.
- Consequences of Wriston's Law ("Capital goes where it
is wanted and stays where it is well-treated.")
- Concentration of all forms of capital assets--financial, intellectual,
social--in global cities.
- Concentration and network effects: attraction of capital through
- Consequences of being left out of capital concentration centers
(example, most of the Arab and Islamic world).
- Global Informational Cities: A Network of Globalization Sites
- Globalization as a network of magacities with concentrations of
technology, information, capital, and labor in a constant state
of flows to and from a central node.
- "The global city is not a place, but a process. A process
by which centers of production and consumption of advanced services,
and their ancillary local societies, are connected in a global
network, while simultaneously downplaying the linkages with
their hinterlands, on the basis of information flows."
(Castells, 1996, 386)
- Consequences of being off the global grid, outside the network,
no nodal access.
- Edges, periphery of global system, distribution of power.
The periphery resists the network.
of World Cities. Map
- Globalization, technology, and communications
- The global architecture of the Internet and telecommunications.
- The distribution of Internet nodes, domain names, concentration
of architecture can be used as a proxy for globalization through
networks of global cities.
- Consequences of being "off the grid" in interconnectivity
- International Culture Issues: Simultaneous Globalizations in International
- Internationalization of the art market in global cities.
- Artists need to move to cities in the "market network"
to be successful.
- Artists and the artworld struggle with ways to position art in
an image-saturated culture, competing with popular culture, television,
- Some artists have even rejected the "(fine)art"
differentiation and embraced cross-media hybrids and ongoing
boundary crossings of art and pop culture.
- Internationalization of artworld professionals: museum curators,
art historians, gallery directors, art biennial and international
art exposition professionals.
- The International Art Biennials
- Art Biennial as a space for artistic legitimization and market
- The role of Biennial curators: the reign of the curator-auteurs.
- Effect of the Biennials: an international language of the
- The impact of the Biennial on local culture and host cities,
economic spill-over effects of the artworld.
- Case study of an artist with high awareness of complexity in globalization:
- Art works as layers of maps referencing multiple cities and
places, the experience of global cities and fractured space
- Art works as hybrids of techniques and media.
- Semiotics of materials and mark-making today: a "traditional"
medium used to represent what "painting" and "drawing"
have not been used to represent (multiple urban places, spaces,
from perspective of multiple identities).
Martin Irvine, 2004